CAN (Content-Addressable Network)
A Scalable Content-Addressable Network.
Ratnasamy, S.; Francis, P.; Handley, M;
et al. In this paper, the concept of
a Content-Addressable Network (CAN) is
introduced as a distributed
infrastructure that provides hash
table-like functionality on
Analysis of the Evolution of
Peer-to-Peer Systems. Liben-Nowell,
D.; Balakrishnan, H. and Karger, D.
In this paper, a theoretical analysis of
peer-to-peer networks operating in the
face of concurrent joins and unexpected
departures is given.
Serving DNS using a Peer-to-Peer Lookup
Service. Cox, R.; Muthitacharoen, A.
and Morris, R.T. The DNS security
extensions (DNSSEC) allow verification
of records obtained by alternate means,
opening exploration of alternative
storage systems for DNS records. We
explore one alternative using DHash, a
peer-to-peer distributed hash table
built on top of Chord.
Observations on the Dynamic Evolution of
Peer-to-Peer Networks. Liben-Nowell,
D.; Balakrishnan, H. and Karger, D.
A fundamental challenge in peer-to-peer
systems is proving statements about the
evolution of the system while nodes are
continuously joining and leaving.
Security Considerations for Peer-to-Peer
Distributed Hash Tables. Sit, E. and
Morris, R.T. This paper looks at
what sorts of security problems are
inherent in large peer-to-peer systems
based on distributed hash lookup
Wide-area cooperative storage with CFS.
Dabek, F.; Kaashoek M.F.; Karger, D.; et
al. The Cooperative File System
(CFS) is a new peer-to-peer read-only
storage system that provides provable
guarantees for the efficiency,
robustness, and load-balance of file
storage and retrieval.
Chord: A Scalable Peer-to-peer Lookup
Service for Internet Applications.
Stoica, I.; Morris, R.; Karger, D.; et
al. A fundamental problem that
confronts peer-to-peer applications is
to efficiently locate the node that
stores a particular data item. This
paper presents Chord, a distributed
lookup protocol that addresses this
Building Peer-to-Peer Systems with
Chord, a Distributed Lookup Service.
Dabek, F.; Brunskill, E.; Kaashoek,
M.F.; et al. The core problem facing
peer-to-peer systems is locating
documents in a decentralized network and
propose Chord, a distributed lookup
primitive. Chord provides an efficient
method of locating documents while
placing few constraints on the
applications that use it.
Circle: one ring, no rulers.
The Circle is an open source scalable
application. The Circle is written in
Python and it runs on Linux and
Windows. At the core of the Circle is
a decentralized hash table, or
"Chord". Very interesting PDF slides
GISP (Global Information
provides a distributed hash table built
on top of the JxTA platform. Developed
by Daishi Kato it features scalability,
simplicity, and easiness of development.
A Distributed Index for Peer-to-Peer
Systems. Kato, D. This paper
proposes GISP, which aims at a
world-wide distributed index. By
building GISP on top of JxTA, a peer
could reach a peer behind a firewall and
even a peer in a different network
Kademlia web site. Contains
theory and practice sections.
Kademlia: A Peer-to-peer Information
System Based on the XOR Metric.
Maymounkov, P. and Birman, K. A
peer-to-peer system which has proven
consistency and performance in a
fault-prone environment is described.
Kademlia routes queries and locates
nodes using a novel XOR-based metric
topology that simplifies the algorithm
and facilitates our proof.
eMule Kademlia Test Client. An
eMule client using Kademlia overlay to
provide Overnet compatibility.
Khashmir is a Distributed Hash
Table (DHT) based on Kademlia and
written in Python. Created by Aaron
MLDonkey is compatible with
Overnet (non-open source
implementation of Kademlia developed
by MetaMachine), and Overnet claims
that it does Kademlia and multisource
downloading. It supports multiple P2P
networks, including eDonkey, Overnet,
Bittorrent, Gnutella (Bearshare,
Limewire, etc), Gnutella2 (Shareaza),
Fasttrack (KaZaA, iMesh, Grobster),
Soulseek, Direct Connect, and OpenNap.
SharkyPy is an implementation
of a Kademlia Distributed Hash Table.
The source is written by Heiko Wundram
and released under the LGPL.
Pastry, Scribe, PAST, ...
Security for structured peer-to-peer
overlay networks. Castro, M.;
Druschel, P.; Ganesh, A.; et al.
Current overlays are not secure; even a
small fraction of malicious nodes can
prevent correct message delivery
throughout the overlay. This paper
studies attacks aimed to preventing
correct message delivery in structured
peer-to-peer overlays and presents
defenses to these attacks.
One ring to rule them all: Service
discovery and binding in structured
peer-to-peer overlay networks.
Castro, M.; Druschel, P.; Kermarrec,
A.M.; et al. One major problem with
existent DHT systems is how to bootstrap
them. In this position paper, the design
of an infrastructure that uses a
universal overlay to provide scalable
infrastructure to bootstrap multiple
service overlays is sketched.
Pastry: Scalable, distributed object
location and routing for large-scale
peer-to-peer systems. Rowstron, A.
and Druschel, P. This paper presents
the design and evaluation of Pastry, a
scalable, distributed object location
and routing substrate for wide-area
Scalable Application-level Anycast for
Highly Dynamic Groups. Castro, M.;
Druschel, P.; Kermarrec, A.M.; et al.
An application-level implementation
of anycast for highly dynamic groups is
An Evaluation of Scalable
Application-level Multicast Built Using
Peer-to-peer overlays. Castro, M;
Jones, M.B.; Kermarrec, A.M.; et al.
This paper reports the first
head-to-head comparison of CAN-style
versus Pastry-style overlay networks,
using multicast communication workloads
running on an identical simulation
Scribe: A large-scale and decentralised
infrastructure. Castro, M.;
Druschel, P.; Kermarrec, A.M. This
paper presents Scribe, a scalable
infrastructure. Scribe supports large
numbers of groups, with potentially
large numbers of members per group.
PAST: A large-scale, persistent
peer-to-peer storage utility.
Druschel, P. and Rowstron, A. This
paper sketches the design of PAST, a
large-scale, Internet-based, global
storage utility that provides
scalability, high availability,
persistence and security.
SplitStream: High-bandwidth multicast in
a cooperative environment. Castro,
M.; Druschel, P; Kermarrec, A.M.; et al.
multicast systems, a relatively small
number of interior nodes carry the load
of forwarding multicast messages. This
works well when the interior nodes are
infrastructure routers but it poses a
problem for application-level multicast
in peer-to-peer systems. SplitStream
addresses this problem by striping the
content across a forest of
interior-node-disjoint multicast trees
that distributes the forwarding load
among all participating peers.
Tapestry, Bayeux, OceanStore,
Optimizations for Locality-Aware
Structured Peer-to-Peer Overlays.
Stribling, J.; Hildrum, K. and
Kubiatowicz, J. Several
optimizations aimed at improving the
object location performance of
locality-aware structured peer-to-peer
overlays are presented.
Exploiting Routing Redundancy via
Structured Peer-to-Peer Overlays.
Zhao, B.Y.; Huang, L.; Stribling, J.; et
al. In this paper, we present two
adaptive mechanisms for structured
overlays and illustrate their operation
in the context of Tapestry, a
fault-resilient overlay from Berkeley.
We also describe a transparent,
protocol-independent traffic redirection
mechanism that tunnels legacy
application traffic through overlays.
Tapestry: A Resilient Global-scale
Overlay for Service Deployment.
Zhao, B.Y.; Huang, L; Stribling, J.; et
al. We present Tapestry, a
peer-to-peer overlay routing
infrastructure offering efficient,
scalable, location-independent routing
of messages directly to nearby copies of
an object or service using only
Distributed Object Location in a Dynamic
Network. Hildrum, K.; Kubiatowicz,
J.D.; Rao, S.; et al. A new
distributed algorithm that can solve the
nearest-neighbor problem for certain
network topologies is presented.
Tapestry: An Infrastructure for
Fault-tolerant Wide-area Location and
Routing. Zhao, B.Y.; Kubiatowicz, J.
and Joseph, A. Tapestry is an
overlay location and routing
infrastructure that provides
location-independent routing of messages
directly to the closest copy of an
object or service using only
point-to-point links and without
Bayeux: An Architecture for Scalable and
Fault-tolerant Wide-Area Data
Dissemination. Zhuang, S.Q.; Zhao,
B.Y.; Joseph, A.D.; et al. In this
paper, we propose Bayeux, an efficient
application-level multicast system that
scales to arbitrarily large receiver
groups while tolerating failures in
routers and network links.
Brocade: landmark routing on overlay
networks. Zhao, B.Y.; Duan, Y.;
Huang, L.; et al. In this paper,
we propose a systemic design for a
secondary overlay of super-nodes which
can be used to deliver messages
directly to the destination's local
network, thus improving route
OceanStore: An Architecture for
Global-scale Persistent Storage.
Kubiatowicz, J.; Bindel, D.; Chen, Y.;
et al. OceanStore is a utility
infrastructure designed to span the
globe and provide continuous access to
persistent information. Since this
infrastructure is comprised of
untrusted servers, data is protected
through redundancy and cryptographic
techniques. To improve performance,
data is allowed to be cached anywhere,
How to use the Tapestry overlay to
implement Storm ?. A Tapestry
and SEDA overview, including its APIs.
Viceroy: A Scalable and Dynamic
Emulation of the Butterfly. Malkhi,
D.; Naor, M. and Ratajczak, D. We
propose a family of constant-degree
routing networks of logarithmic
diameter, with the additional property
that the addition or removal of a node
to the network requires no global
coordination, and only a constant number
of linkage changes in expectation, and a
logarithmic number with high
Towards a Common API for Structured
Peer-to-Peer Overlays. Dabek, F.;
Zhao, B.Y.; Druschel, P.; et al.
paper, we describe an ongoing effort to
define common APIs for structured
peer-to-peer overlays and the key
abstractions that can be built on them.
In doing so, we hope to facilitate
independent innovation in overlay
protocols, services, and applications,
to allow direct experimental
comparisons, and to encourage
application development by third
Sloppy hashing and self-organizing
clusters. Freedman, M.J. and
are building Coral, a peer-to-peer
content distribution system. Coral
creates self-organizing clusters of
nodes that fetch information from each
other to avoid communicating with more
distant or heavily-loaded servers.
Koorde: A simple degree-optimal
distributed hash table. Kaashoek,
M.F. and Karger, D.R.
a new distributed hash table (DHT) based
on Chord  and the de Bruijn graphs.
While inheriting the simplicity of
Chord, Koorde meets various lower
bounds, such as
hops per lookup request with only 2
neighbors per node (where
the number of nodes in the DHT), and
hops per lookup request with
neighbors per node.
On Death, Taxes, and the Convergence of
Peer-to-Peer and Grid Computing.
Foster, I. and Iamnitchi, A.
Scooped, Again. Ledlie, J.;
Shneidman, J.; Seltzer, M; et al.
Very interesting paper focusing on the
Grid an p2p features.
SOMO: Self-Organized Metadata Overlay
for Resource Management in P2P DHT.
Zhang, Z.; Shi, S.M. and Zhu, J. In
this paper, we first describe the
concept of data overlay, which is a
mechanism to implement arbitrary data
structure on top of any structured P2P
DHT. With this abstraction, we developed
a highly scalable, efficient and robust
infrastructure, called SOMO, to perform
resource management for P2P DHT.
On the Feasibility of Peer-to-Peer Web
Indexing and Search. Li, J.; Loo,
B.T.; Hellerstein, J.; et al.
This paper discusses the feasibility of
peer-to-peer full-text keyword search of
The Swan Project. Bonsma, E.; Hoile,
C. SWAN (Small World Adaptive
Networks) is a fully decentralised look-up
system for Peer-to-Peer applications. In
SWAN, information self-organises into a
Small World Network, exploiting the
principle of "six degrees of separation"
to efficiently find resources without
resorting to centralised look-up. The
basic technology has been tested and is
currently being built into serveral
prototype applications, including
iAnnotate and iLiftShare.
Efficient Broadcast in Structured P2P
Networks. El-Ansary, S.; Alima,
L.O.; Brand, P.; et al. In this
position paper, we present an efficient
algorithm for performing a broadcast
operation with minimal cost in
structured DHT-based P2P networks.
INS/Twine: A Scalable Peer-to-Peer
Architecture for Intentional Resource
Discovery. Balazinska, M.;
Balakrishnan, H. and Karger, D.
This paper describes the design,
implementation, and evaluation of
INS/Twine, an approach to scalable
intentional resource discovery, where
resolvers collaborate as peers to
distribute resource information and to
Routing Algorithms for DHTs: Some Open
Questions. Ratnasamy, S.; Shenker,
S. and Stoica, I.
Locating Data in (Small-World?)
Peer-to-Peer Scientific Collaborations.
Iamnitchi, A; Ripeanu, M. and Foster, I.
Complex Queries in DHT-based
Peer-to-Peer Networks. Harren, M.;
Hellerstein, J.M.; Huebsch, R; et al.
paper outlines a research agenda for
building complex query facilities on top
of these DHT-based P2P systems. We
describe the issues involved and outline
our research plan and current status.
Efficient Peer-to-Peer Lookup Based on a
Distributed Trie. Freedman, M.J. and
Two main approaches have been taken for
distributed key/value lookup operations
in peer-to-peer systems: broadcast
searches and location-deterministic
algorithms. We describe a third
alternative based on a distributed trie.
This algorithm functions well in a very
dynamic, hostile environment, offering
security benefits over prior proposals.
A survey of implemented DHT overlays as
of July 2003. Created by
Hermanni Hyytiälä. Very interesting
survey of many existent DHT overlays.